Monthly Archives: November 2011

Reflection of the course

In this course of Issues in Publication and Design, I had learnt many things in Publication and Design. I had learnt the issues of that people usually faces in design and publish their document. I think the issue that often people faces and ignore is the culture background of the readers or audience. According to Putnis and Petelin(1996), they mentioned that schema theory proposed that readers using their experience and knowledge to interact with the document and create their meaning. Document designer not only have to consider cultural differences, the layout of the document also very important. According to Reep (2006), she mentioned that readers not only read the text or the content in the document, they also ‘read’ the visual appearance of the document. It is very important to consider some issues that we will face in order to avoid that issue and make a effective document to send right message to the audience.


Putnis P, Petelin R, 1996, Writing to communicate, Professional communication: principles and applications, Ch 7, pg. 223-263

Reep D. C, 2006, Document design, Technical writing, Ch 6, pg. 133-172


Cultural differences in multiracial country

Malaysia is multiracial country that has different races live in same country harmony.  However, there always have some issue happen when there is a different race in a same country. In August 2011, there is a Ramadhan advertisement by 8tv aired in television to celebrate the festival of Ramadhan. However, the advertisement had raised the anger of Chinese people. According to Chieh (2011), he said that the advertisement had received complaint that it is purportedly racist for stereotyping Chinese as insensitive, loud and obnoxious. According to Kamal (2011), it said that Chief Executive of Media Prima claims that the advertisement is just a public service announcement that give advice about how should non-Muslims people behave during the festival month.

Media Prima should think of the culture background of different race before they produce an advertisement like this. When design or produce an advertisement, it is important to understand the differences of cultural background of the audience in order to make the advertisement reach the audience. According to Kress & van Leeuwan (1998), it point out that the hard part of analysing the reading path of people is not because of the lack of analytical ability of the research, it is the differences of cultural background of the audience. Media Prima did not follow the theory of Kress & van Leeuwan when they design or produce the advertisement. They had been complaint by the public for stereotype and racist because they did not consider the factor of cultural differences.

It is important to think both the differences of individual among audience and the different ways that people perceive the document (Schriver, 1997). According to Walsh (2006), he also mentioned that the factor that we always have to consider is the reader’s schema in both the document of multimodal texts or print-based.


Chieh Y. H, 2011, 8TV panned for ‘insincere’ apology over Ramadan ads, viewed on 15 November 2011,

Kamal  S. M, 2011, TV Boss urges public to ‘chill’ as 8TV Ramadan ad draws flak, viewed on 15 November 2011,

Kress  G, van Leeuwan T, 1998, ‘Front pages: The critical analysis of newspaper layout’, Approaches  to media discourse, Ch 7, pg.186-219

Schriver K. A, 1997, The interplay of words and pictures, Dynamics in document design: creating texts for readers, Ch 6, pg. 361-441

Walsh M, 2006, The ‘textual shift’: Examining the reading process with print, visual and multimodal texts, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol .29, pg. 24-37

Invasion of privacy in Journalism

With the evolving of new media such as Facebook and Twitters, people starts to use smartphone to get information and interact with people in order to be trendy. However, someone misuse the technology to achieve their goal. In 4 July 2011, there is news report of News of The World hacked the phone of the victim, Milly Dowler’s family by Guardian News (Davies and Hill, 2011). It said that News of the World hacked the voicemail of the victim’s family in order to get the information that they want. According to Chandrasekhar, Wardrop and Trotman (2011), the case of Milly Dowler is not the only news that News of The World hacked people’s phone in order to get information. There also other victims being hacked by the News of The World such as the families of London who died in July 7 and terrorist bombing of London in 2005 and family of the murder victims (Poeter, 2011).

Source taken from

Under the Data Protection Act 1998, it stated that “Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes” (Your Rights, 2009). According to the Data Protection Act 1998, News of The World had violated the law because they hacked people’s phone in order to get information that they want. This news had brings us to the ethical issue in journalism. The ethical issue in journalism in this case is the way that the journalist gathers the information. The journalist of News of The World cannot hacked people’s phone in order to get the information of the news that they report. The journalist is considers unethical. According to Society of Professional Journalists (2011), it stated that according to code of ethics in Society of Professional Journalists, the journalist should other secret methods such as undercover to gather information.


Davies N, & Hill A, 2011, Missing Milly Dowler’s voicemail was hacked by News of the World, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Chandrasekhar I, Wardrop M, Trotman A, 2011, Phone hacking: timeline of the Scandal, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Poeter D, 2011, How Did News of the World Hack Victims’ Cell Phone?, viewed on 14 November 2011,,2817,2388157,00.asp#fbid=jsKJVKwXyy-

Your Rights, 2009, Data Protection, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Society of Professional Jornalists, 2011, SPJ Code of Ethics, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Revolution of Citizen Journalism

In the world with advance technology, people mostly depend on the technology to communicate with people and get information that they want. According to Serrano (2011), he mentioned that there are 750 million Facebook users and 100 million Twitter user s in worldwide. It means most of the people are using Facebook to interact with people. People not only use social media to interact with people, they also use social media as a tool to promote or selling product and publish news. According to Jacog (2011), he mentioned that some company use social media as a “business process”, which is the process where the company test or marketing their product.

People can get information easily from Internet, they also can publish information in the internet which leads to the citizen journalism nowadays. According to Rogers (2011), he defines citizen journalism is individual report news or information in Internet similar to journalist in the publication. It means that individual or person that publishes or reports the information in the Internet. Sometimes, the source of the news the journalist report is from citizen journalist. Citizen journalists not only post some information in internet, they also can raise some revolution.

Source taken from Iran Green Revolution, 2009

One of the examples is the death of Neda Agha Soltan in Protest for Election of Iran Presidential in 2009. Neda Agha Soltan, 26 years old woman was killed by sniper at rooftop when she was protest for freedom in Protest for Election of Iran Presidential in 2009 (Tabatabai, 2009).During the death, one of the citizen had recorded the incident and upload it to youtube.  According to Dehghan (2009), he mentioned that Nega Agha Soltan had become the “symbol of Iran protest movement”. After the incident happens, Iran protest activity had brought to another level (North, 2009). Social media such as Twitter and Facebook had allows the citizen journalist to help marginalized people to voice out and create a well- informed and balance news to publics (Revis, 2011).


Deghan S. K, 2009, Neda Soltan family ‘forced out of home’ by Iranian authorities, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Serrano A. F, 2011, The Social Media Explosion: By the Numbers, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Jacog, 2011, What is the Purpose of Social Media in Lead Generation?, viewed on 14 November 2011,

North A, 2009, Will Neda Agha-Soltan’s Death Tip Iran into “Revolution”?, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Rogers T, 2011, What is Citizen Journalism?, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Revis L, 2011, How Citizen Journalism Is Reshaping Media and Democracy, viewed on 14 November 2011,

Tabatabai M, 2009, Neda Soltan, Young Women Hailed as Martyr in Iran, Become Face of Protests, viewed on 14 November 2011,,2933,528133,00.html

Ethical issue in Photojournalism

In the developing 20th century’s world, people no longer follow the traditional way to report the news. Nowadays, most of the journalist depend on image or picture to tell the story of the news which called as photojournalism. Similar with other industry, there have some ethics that journalist need to follow in order become a professional and ethical journalist. However, there always have some people who like to be unethical to achieve their goal. One of the major ethics issue is photo editing in the newspaper.

Source taken from The Great's One Blog

One of the examples of is the case of Orthodox Jewish publication edited Hillary Clinton, US Sectary of State and Audrey Tomason, Counterterrorism Director from the photograph of the meeting with navy Seal monitoring the raid that Osama bin Laden was killed . According to the Bersak (2006), he mentioned ethics of photojournalism is mainly focus on the issue of “photographic truth”. It means that the journalist must be publish the real photo and cannot alter the photo. However, the journalist of Orthodox Jewish publication is unethical because he alter the photography of the news.

According to Debold (2011), she mentioned the reason of Der Tzitung, the journalist of Orthodox Jewish publication is that the law of modesty and the belief of their religious do not allow them to publish women’s image in the news.  Although is the law of the country that do not allows the journalist publish women images in their news, it still consider as sexism in other country. The Orthodox Jewish publication not only violate the photo’s copyright, they also guilty for something that greater than “crime” (Seidl, 2011). In these days, woman and man are equally same in the society. The Orthodox Jewish publication will be charge for misogyny and sexism because this action (Jamaal, 2011).  As a journalist, we should report the truth and create awareness to the public.


Bersak D. R, 2006, Ethics in Photojournalism: Past, Present, and Future, viewed on 13 November 2011,

Debold E, 2011, The Gender Situation & Situation Room, viewed on 13 November 2011,

Seidl J. M, 2011, Jewish Newspaper Photoshops Hillary Out of Photo of Clinton Photo, viewed on 13 November 2011,

Jamaal D. K, 2011, Sexism? Jewish newspaper edits Hillary from situation room photo, viewed on 13 November 2011,