In this course of Issues in Publication and Design, I had learnt many things in Publication and Design. I had learnt the issues of that people usually faces in design and publish their document. I think the issue that often people faces and ignore is the culture background of the readers or audience. According to Putnis and Petelin(1996), they mentioned that schema theory proposed that readers using their experience and knowledge to interact with the document and create their meaning. Document designer not only have to consider cultural differences, the layout of the document also very important. According to Reep (2006), she mentioned that readers not only read the text or the content in the document, they also ‘read’ the visual appearance of the document. It is very important to consider some issues that we will face in order to avoid that issue and make a effective document to send right message to the audience.
Putnis P, Petelin R, 1996, Writing to communicate, Professional communication: principles and applications, Ch 7, pg. 223-263
Reep D. C, 2006, Document design, Technical writing, Ch 6, pg. 133-172
Malaysia is multiracial country that has different races live in same country harmony. However, there always have some issue happen when there is a different race in a same country. In August 2011, there is a Ramadhan advertisement by 8tv aired in television to celebrate the festival of Ramadhan. However, the advertisement had raised the anger of Chinese people. According to Chieh (2011), he said that the advertisement had received complaint that it is purportedly racist for stereotyping Chinese as insensitive, loud and obnoxious. According to Kamal (2011), it said that Chief Executive of Media Prima claims that the advertisement is just a public service announcement that give advice about how should non-Muslims people behave during the festival month.
Media Prima should think of the culture background of different race before they produce an advertisement like this. When design or produce an advertisement, it is important to understand the differences of cultural background of the audience in order to make the advertisement reach the audience. According to Kress & van Leeuwan (1998), it point out that the hard part of analysing the reading path of people is not because of the lack of analytical ability of the research, it is the differences of cultural background of the audience. Media Prima did not follow the theory of Kress & van Leeuwan when they design or produce the advertisement. They had been complaint by the public for stereotype and racist because they did not consider the factor of cultural differences.
It is important to think both the differences of individual among audience and the different ways that people perceive the document (Schriver, 1997). According to Walsh (2006), he also mentioned that the factor that we always have to consider is the reader’s schema in both the document of multimodal texts or print-based.
Chieh Y. H, 2011, 8TV panned for ‘insincere’ apology over Ramadan ads, viewed on 15 November 2011, http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/malaysia/article/8tv-panned-for-insincere-apology-over-ramadan-ads/
Kamal S. M, 2011, TV Boss urges public to ‘chill’ as 8TV Ramadan ad draws flak, viewed on 15 November 2011, http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/malaysia/article/tv-boss-urges-public-to-chill-as-8tv-ramadhan-ad-draws-flak/
Kress G, van Leeuwan T, 1998, ‘Front pages: The critical analysis of newspaper layout’, Approaches to media discourse, Ch 7, pg.186-219
Schriver K. A, 1997, The interplay of words and pictures, Dynamics in document design: creating texts for readers, Ch 6, pg. 361-441
Walsh M, 2006, The ‘textual shift’: Examining the reading process with print, visual and multimodal texts, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol .29, pg. 24-37
With the evolving of new media such as Facebook and Twitters, people starts to use smartphone to get information and interact with people in order to be trendy. However, someone misuse the technology to achieve their goal. In 4 July 2011, there is news report of News of The World hacked the phone of the victim, Milly Dowler’s family by Guardian News (Davies and Hill, 2011). It said that News of the World hacked the voicemail of the victim’s family in order to get the information that they want. According to Chandrasekhar, Wardrop and Trotman (2011), the case of Milly Dowler is not the only news that News of The World hacked people’s phone in order to get information. There also other victims being hacked by the News of The World such as the families of London who died in July 7 and terrorist bombing of London in 2005 and family of the murder victims (Poeter, 2011).
Under the Data Protection Act 1998, it stated that “Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes” (Your Rights, 2009). According to the Data Protection Act 1998, News of The World had violated the law because they hacked people’s phone in order to get information that they want. This news had brings us to the ethical issue in journalism. The ethical issue in journalism in this case is the way that the journalist gathers the information. The journalist of News of The World cannot hacked people’s phone in order to get the information of the news that they report. The journalist is considers unethical. According to Society of Professional Journalists (2011), it stated that according to code of ethics in Society of Professional Journalists, the journalist should other secret methods such as undercover to gather information.
Davies N, & Hill A, 2011, Missing Milly Dowler’s voicemail was hacked by News of the World, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/jul/04/milly-dowler-voicemail-hacked-news-of-world
Chandrasekhar I, Wardrop M, Trotman A, 2011, Phone hacking: timeline of the Scandal, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/phone-hacking/8634176/Phone-hacking-timeline-of-a-scandal.html
Poeter D, 2011, How Did News of the World Hack Victims’ Cell Phone?, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2388157,00.asp#fbid=jsKJVKwXyy-
Your Rights, 2009, Data Protection, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/privacy/data-protection/
Society of Professional Jornalists, 2011, SPJ Code of Ethics, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.spj.org/ethicscode.asp
In the world with advance technology, people mostly depend on the technology to communicate with people and get information that they want. According to Serrano (2011), he mentioned that there are 750 million Facebook users and 100 million Twitter user s in worldwide. It means most of the people are using Facebook to interact with people. People not only use social media to interact with people, they also use social media as a tool to promote or selling product and publish news. According to Jacog (2011), he mentioned that some company use social media as a “business process”, which is the process where the company test or marketing their product.
People can get information easily from Internet, they also can publish information in the internet which leads to the citizen journalism nowadays. According to Rogers (2011), he defines citizen journalism is individual report news or information in Internet similar to journalist in the publication. It means that individual or person that publishes or reports the information in the Internet. Sometimes, the source of the news the journalist report is from citizen journalist. Citizen journalists not only post some information in internet, they also can raise some revolution.
One of the examples is the death of Neda Agha Soltan in Protest for Election of Iran Presidential in 2009. Neda Agha Soltan, 26 years old woman was killed by sniper at rooftop when she was protest for freedom in Protest for Election of Iran Presidential in 2009 (Tabatabai, 2009).During the death, one of the citizen had recorded the incident and upload it to youtube. According to Dehghan (2009), he mentioned that Nega Agha Soltan had become the “symbol of Iran protest movement”. After the incident happens, Iran protest activity had brought to another level (North, 2009). Social media such as Twitter and Facebook had allows the citizen journalist to help marginalized people to voice out and create a well- informed and balance news to publics (Revis, 2011).
Deghan S. K, 2009, Neda Soltan family ‘forced out of home’ by Iranian authorities, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/24/neda-soltan-iran-family-forced-out
Serrano A. F, 2011, The Social Media Explosion: By the Numbers, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.thefiscaltimes.com/Articles/2011/09/12/The-Social-Media-Explosion-By-the-Numbers.aspx#page1
Jacog, 2011, What is the Purpose of Social Media in Lead Generation?, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.broadvisionmarketing.com/2011/07/what-is-the-purpose-of-social-media-in-lead-generation/
North A, 2009, Will Neda Agha-Soltan’s Death Tip Iran into “Revolution”?, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://jezebel.com/5299483/will-neda-agha+soltans-death-tip-iran-into-revolution
Rogers T, 2011, What is Citizen Journalism?, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://journalism.about.com/od/citizenjournalism/a/whatiscitizen.htm
Revis L, 2011, How Citizen Journalism Is Reshaping Media and Democracy, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://mashable.com/2011/11/10/citizen-journalism-democracy/
Tabatabai M, 2009, Neda Soltan, Young Women Hailed as Martyr in Iran, Become Face of Protests, viewed on 14 November 2011, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,528133,00.html
In the developing 20th century’s world, people no longer follow the traditional way to report the news. Nowadays, most of the journalist depend on image or picture to tell the story of the news which called as photojournalism. Similar with other industry, there have some ethics that journalist need to follow in order become a professional and ethical journalist. However, there always have some people who like to be unethical to achieve their goal. One of the major ethics issue is photo editing in the newspaper.
One of the examples of is the case of Orthodox Jewish publication edited Hillary Clinton, US Sectary of State and Audrey Tomason, Counterterrorism Director from the photograph of the meeting with navy Seal monitoring the raid that Osama bin Laden was killed . According to the Bersak (2006), he mentioned ethics of photojournalism is mainly focus on the issue of “photographic truth”. It means that the journalist must be publish the real photo and cannot alter the photo. However, the journalist of Orthodox Jewish publication is unethical because he alter the photography of the news.
According to Debold (2011), she mentioned the reason of Der Tzitung, the journalist of Orthodox Jewish publication is that the law of modesty and the belief of their religious do not allow them to publish women’s image in the news. Although is the law of the country that do not allows the journalist publish women images in their news, it still consider as sexism in other country. The Orthodox Jewish publication not only violate the photo’s copyright, they also guilty for something that greater than “crime” (Seidl, 2011). In these days, woman and man are equally same in the society. The Orthodox Jewish publication will be charge for misogyny and sexism because this action (Jamaal, 2011). As a journalist, we should report the truth and create awareness to the public.
Bersak D. R, 2006, Ethics in Photojournalism: Past, Present, and Future, viewed on 13 November 2011, http://web.mit.edu/drb/Public/PhotoThesis/
Debold E, 2011, The Gender Situation & Situation Room, viewed on 13 November 2011, http://magazine.enlightennext.org/2011/05/20/the-gender-situation-the-situation-room/
Seidl J. M, 2011, Jewish Newspaper Photoshops Hillary Out of Photo of Clinton Photo, viewed on 13 November 2011, http://www.theblaze.com/stories/jewish-newspaper-photoshops-hillary-clinton-out-of-iconic-photo/
Jamaal D. K, 2011, Sexism? Jewish newspaper edits Hillary from situation room photo, viewed on 13 November 2011, http://www.examiner.com/post-partisan-in-national/sexism-jewish-newspaper-removes-hillary-from-situation-room-photo
Shriver defines that “ Document design is the act of writing and designing along with the skillful selection, structuring and emphasis of content with the reader’s needs in focus.” (Bastoky Design, n.d.) It means that with a good writing styles and good design layout, it can emphasis the content to make the readers focus the content that they should focus.
For further understanding about the document design, I will compare the design of screen and print document based on 3 considerations which is text style and format, color and contrast and layout.
As you see that in screen document design, the text that used is more big which is more easy to read. The text styles is Times News Roman and the font size is 12 . For the colour and contrast, we can see that screen document’s background is white and the text is black in order to let the readers focus on the information. Screen document’s layout is the space between the paragraphs is bigger so that it will not looks pack.
As for the print document, in order to save the space, the font size of the text is much smaller and the text style that it used is more in formal style. For the color and contrast, it usually more on the black and white. Compare to the screen document, it looks less interesting. Besides that, the layout of the print document, the space between the paragraphs is small and it looks crowded.
Document design is very important in the publishing in order to attract the readers to pay attention to the document.
Bastoky design, n.d., Document Design, Fundamentals of Document Design, viewed at 24 August 2011, available at http://www.bastoky.com/DocDesignDef.htm
Nowadays, we not only can publish our articles or thought in the traditional ways such as newspaper, books, magazine and others. People can also express or publish their article in the new forms of media. For new forms of media, there have 3 most popular new forms of media publishing which are Facebook, Twitter and Youtube.
As for Facebook, it gives a place to people connect and communicate with their friends around the world. People can easily know and track where are their friends doing and what they are doing. It make people connected.
For case of Egypt, Simon Mainwaring (2011) said that it started with Khaled Said which a young businessman posted a video about how a young man had been beaten up and killed by police. Wael Ghonim who was a bespectacled techie, moved by the video and started a facebook fan page about it. The fan page had become a crucial point where there have around 470,00o fans that organized the dissidence of it and it had become one of the largest activist site in Egypt. According to Mike Giglo(2011), the protests in Tusinia had made the longstanding dictator of Egypt stepped down on Jan 14 and Ghonim was announced Facebook as the revolution of Egypt.
In this case, we can see that people use Facebook as a tool to connect with other people to support the event and gather the people who willing to take the action to make their country to be a better country.
Mainwaring S, 2011, Exactly what role did social media play in the Egyptian revolution?, socialmediatoday, viewed at 23 August 2011, available at http://socialmediatoday.com/simonmainwaring/269957/exactly-what-role-did-social-media-play-egyptian-revolution
Giglo M, 2011, The Facebook Freedom Fighter, The Daily Beast, viewed at 23 August 2011, available at http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/02/13/the-facebook-freedom-fighter.html
With the growth of the bloggers today, it had led to the development to the blogging community. According to Jeremiah Owyang(2007), he had defines that blogging community is an online community that a group of people with same goal or interests who exchange thoughts and feelings through web tools which is blog.
There have different types of blog communities in the blogging world. According to Nancy White (2006), she had categorized three main patterns of blogging community as mentioned in below:
1. Blogger Centric Community a.k.a Single Blog
- A blog community that owned by an organization or one owner. There may have many authors writing in one blog. The owner of the blog has authority to remove or close the comments which the censorship. Mostly the topic that they discuss is a conversational topic. For example, KennySia.com
2.Topic Centric Community
- A blog community that bloggers share the same interest towards a certain things such as food, travel and others. It has no single technological platforms and the bloggers is link by the blogs, hyperlinks, tagging and others. For example, Masak-masak
3. Boundaried Community
- A blog community where the readers hosted on particular platform or site. In order to join the community, the readers have to register first and given chance to create a blog. It focus more on the social networking and social connections as provide some tools such as instant messaging- in, social networking features, discussion board and others. For example, Multiply
There had been so many types of blogs in the world and it can be classified into what the blogs about and how it present the information. According to Margaret Simons(2008), she had listed out 9 types of blogs as mentioned in below:
- Pamphleteering Blogs
- The Digest Blog
- The Advocacy Blog
- The Popular Mechanics Blog
- The Exhibition Blog
- The Gatewatcher Blog
- The Diary
- The Advertisement
- The News Blog
Types of blog also had been divided according to types of media or device that bloggers use to blog. According to Valid information(2011), it mentioned 8 types of blogging as mentioned in below:
- Link blogging – blogging by sharing the links to other people
- Mob log – blogging by sharing the pictures through smartphone
- Podcast – blogging by sharing audio format such as MP3 and others
- Video log(vlog) – blogging by sharing the video to other people
- Micro log – A short message that may contained shortened URL
- Mini blog – A blog that shorter than the regular blog
- Live blog – blogging by sharing live event such as sport event and others
- Blog – Traditional blog
There are so many types of blog and using different types of device to blog. In my opinion, the most effective and attractive ways to blog is using video log. People tend to lazy read the blog words by words and they would like to watch some video or visual to improve their understanding about the blog. Compare to the traditional blog, it may effective to people who like to know about fact and more information about certain topics such as environment, politic.
Simons, M 2008, Towards a taxonomy of blogs, AustralianPolicyOnline , viewed on 23 th April 2011, available at http://www.apo.org.au/commentary/towards-taxonomy-blogs-0
Valid Information 2011, Types of blogging and the theory related to them, viewed on 23 th April 2011, available at http://www.validinformation.com/2011/02/types-of-blogging-and-the-theory-related-to-them.html
In the era of modern communication with advance technology, people use different types of media to express their thoughts and feelings. One of the media that people nowadays use frequently is blog.
According to Jon Sobel(2010), he mentioned that in the reports of Technorati’s which is about the state of blogosphere in 2010, it stated that the bloggers in United States had stood for 49% which is almost half of it. The second country that had the most bloggers is Europe which is 29% and Asia-Pacific had 12% which is the third country. The rest will be Canada and Mexico which is 7% and South America is 3%.
With the increasing of the growth of people using smartphone nowadays, people can easily blog in any place and any time if they want. Hence, it had create a trend of mobile blogging. With it, the growth of bloggers will increase much more in the future.
In the past, people only use blog to write about their daily life. But now it had changed. Nowadays, people also use blog as a tool to create awareness to some issues. According to Aziz Ali (2011), he had interviewed one of the earliest blogger in Middle East which is Who-Sane. It mentioned that Who-Sane used the blog to express that how his father mistreat in a public hospital in Jordanian and it led to the firing of the director of the hospital as poor condition of the hospital.
Blog is considered as an important tools to let people voice out and create a better society to people.
Sobel, J 2010, State of Blogosphere 2010, Technorati, viewed 22 August 2011, available at<http://technorati.com/blogging/article/state-of-the-blogosphere-2010-introduction/>
Ali, A 2011, Giving Birth to the Middle East’s Blogosphere, PSFK, viewed 22 August 2011, available at http://www.psfk.com/2011/01/giving-birth-to-the-middle-easts-blogosphere.html